Group Development - Coursework Example The team suggested that a little gathering goes through five phases to get completely developed (T...
Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Group Development - Coursework Example The team suggested that a little gathering goes through five phases to get completely developed (Tuckman and Jensen, 2010). They proposed the ways to incorporate; framing, raging, norming, performing lastly the deferring stages. It is hence that any group head should attempt to know the qualities of each stage so he/she can discover and receive the fundamental aptitudes to manage the individuals challenges. The accompanying article is about the stages gone through by the business group shaped by Barclays Bank to build their piece of the overall industry by offering advances and different items to which I was a part. This stage was portrayed by a great deal of interest and fervor the same number of us were not yet certain about the genuine motivation behind the group. The vast majority at this stage didn't have any acquaintance with one another and their capacity/abilities. Nonetheless, the colleagues were well mannered and open to one another. The group head was exceptionally activity and more outcome arranged. He acquainted us with significant assignments in an offer to amplify well disposed environment to see undertakings embraced and finished in time. He was mandate at this level and strolled through the group giving bearings. Here we had a few contradictions and clashes among ourselves as different individuals understood the undertakings were very testing. A few partners turned out to be absolutely incorporative with one another, in any event, scrutinizing the authority of the group head and his jobs other along these lines fuelling the contentions. This, be that as it may, is normal at this phase as indicated by (Eyre and Mind Tool Team, 2014). They recommend that the pioneer should be self-assured and progressively positive to the primary objective, aptitudes that were missing in our group head. They suggest that He/she ought to try and think about preparing individuals on compromise and disclose to them that whatever was going on at that stage was ordinary (Eyre and Mind Tool Team, 2014). This was not the situation with
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Do you think the occasions of September 11, 2001, changed the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s impression of police? Clarify how and why. One accepts the open recognition has influenced from great to awful over years. For example, directly after the September eleventh psychological oppressor assaults on the Twin Towers, the mass loss of regular folks, police, just as local group of fire-fighters work force increased open compassion. The Cypress Times clarifies, Ã¢â¬Å"It remains the deadliest day in U.S. law requirement history: 72 harmony officials executed in the line of obligation during the psychological oppressor assaults of September 11, 2001Ã¢â¬ (Kouri, 2011). The open saw the loss of divisions just as law implementation officials as legends for the mental fortitude of attempting to endeavor to spare lives and coloring in real life. These people were not, at this point only the individuals one would attempt to keep away from, for example, with traffic tickets, these were the people society would perceive and come to thank. Be that as it may, as society isn't only one individual and incorporates the psyches of many came a lot of discussion. Alongside such huge plot to slaughter Americans incorporated the matter of who to fault for such assaults. Was the fault toward the absence of air terminal security and work force by the air terminal police, the President of the United States or for the robbers? Regardless of habitual pettiness numerous laws were undoubtedly upheld after the September eleventh assaults on United States soil. The League for Revolutionary Party shows, Perhaps, many idea, September 11 would check the start of when all Americans would stand together in solidarity and equalityÃ¢â¬ ¦. lawmakers passed new laws like the Ã¢â¬Å"USA Patriot ActÃ¢â¬ that enormously extended police forces to spy, capture and cross examine suspects (League for Revolutionary Party, 2011). For sure, the same number of laws intend to help, one accepts this would give cops more slack to utilize forces of police activities. The League for Revolutionary Party further delineates, Ã¢â¬Å"The star cop climate cultivated after September 11 gave the police a green light to beat, shoot and execute unafraid of discipline or even much attentionÃ¢â¬ (League for Revolutionary Party, 2011). One accepts this is to some degree precise as the assaults are particularly engraved in numerous individual personalities, in any case, the appreciative disposition of Americans moved quick from the saints of that day to the legends that are as of now sent due to the September eleventh assaults. Regardless of what there will consistently be awful cops; there were some before September eleventh and after September eleventh. The assaults had an impact yet regardless of the assaults a significant part of the open will accept police racially profile or are the miscreants that simply give people tickets. In spite of assessments, officials are there to serve and secure. References: Kouri, K. (2011, August 20). 72 Police Officers Killed On 9/11 To Be Remembered On tenth Anniversary. Recovered from http://www.thecypresstimes.com League for Revolutionary Party. (2011, Fall). Police Terror since September 11. Recovered from http://www.Irp-cofi.org
Sunday, August 9, 2020
How to Write an Academic Essay How to Write an Academic Essay Why Writing an Academic Paper is Important for Student A well written academic paper is a complex written exercise, which many students have to finish in order to improve their knowledge and to prove they have learned something great during the semester. Students have to use the topic provided by the teacher and express their view on it. Writing a custom essay is a good way to test student's knowledge and confirm that what they have learned will stay with them for a long period of time. Every academic paper is a strong indicator of student's success, whereas a good academic research paper is the best means to earn the highest grade. Students who excel in writing academic paper works have better chances to meet grade criteria and requirements. Every essay paper moves them closer to the perfect standards of academic performance, making it easier to get high scores. Methods of academic research paper writing will certainly vary as students gradually move from the lowest towards the highest level of academic performance. At the college level, the paper will contain more important information than a high school work. The process of moving from one level to another is natural and slow, but students should not forget that they need to show this progress in their academic term papers. For instance, university and MBA students should display perfect knowledge of their discipline in order to be considered as experts in their profession.
Saturday, May 23, 2020
During the late 19th and early 20th century a popular new theory started to spread. Based in the ideas of Charles Darwin, the theory of eugenics came about. During its time, it was embraced almost unanimously throughout the world. This theory had very few objectors to the practice of eugenics. But what is eugenics anyways? Why was it poplar exactly? And what were its impacts on the world we live in today? Eugenics is a theory that had many different reasons for being popular, and many differing impact on our world today. Eugenics is an interesting topic that could be said to have taken the world by storm in the late 19th and early 20th century, and exploring its meaning, popularity, and impacts is too. Eugenics, simply put, is theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦But, after Galton released his research many found the theory interesting. Interesting enough that eugenics became an academic subject taught and researched at a multitude of colleges and universities. This research at colleges and universities were given funding from various sources such as the rich and government. There were even three International Eugenics Conferences which gave a global location for eugenicists where they could meet. With gatherings in 1912 in London, and in 1921 and 1932 in New York. This interest in eugenics was not only limited to the academic world (Haller)(Bashford). Eugenic policies began being employed during the early 20th century in the United States. Later, in the 1920s and 30s, eugenic policies were applied in other countries, comprising Belgium, Canada, Japan, and many others (Adams). The policies and programs were mainly implemented in different degrees around the world include, genetic screening, birth control, marriage restrictions, segregation of both race and the mentally ill, obligatory sterilization, forced abortions and pregnancies, and genocide(Bashford). Many different groups of people were targeted by these policies. Those who were targeted included the poor, mentally ill, blind, deaf, disabled, promiscuous women, homosexuals, and racial groups Ã¢â¬â the most notable racial groups targeted were the Jews and Gypsies during the holocaust (Dikotter). As a social movement, eugenics reached its greatestShow MoreRelatedEugenics : The Theory Of Eugenics1552 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEugenics History The theory of Eugenics can be dated back all the way to 400 B.C. but was not popularized until the mid-1800s by an English scientist, Francis Galton. He researched and published the theory that aimed to improve the genetic quality of the human population through selective breeding (NC Office of Archives and History). As the half-cousin of Charles Darwin, Galton applied the Darwinism science (survival of the fittest) to heredity characteristics. Two types of Eugenics stemmed fromRead MoreThe Theory Of Liberal Eugenics1927 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Nicholas Agar, in Liberal Eugenics promotes a more neutral position of moral obligation to tolerance in respecting the differences people have regarding what constitutes a valuable trait and their perceptions of a good life, thus seemingly avoiding the authoritarian eugenics of the past. In this new conception of eugenics governments cannot tell parents what children should be like and parents will respect their childÃ¢â¬â¢s autonomy as not to favor one specific identity or lifestyle over another. InRead MoreThe Theory Of Sterilization Of Minorities By Supporting The Eugenics Movement950 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesin the United States and Nazi-reigned Germany. Supposedly, this rhetoric has been disproven throughout the United States; however, there are proven accounts that the United States government has recently supported this theory of sterilization of minorities by supporting the eugenics movement. This movement was not only practiced in Nazi Germany, but also on United States soi l. The topic of improving the genetic makeup of different races has not only just become a common theme for many modern dayRead MoreAmerican Funding Of Nazi Eugenics1114 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAmerican Funding of Nazi Eugenics Eugenics is a complex term that has been studied and discussed internationally and throughout the eras. A basic definition of eugenics is the scientific study of race improvement. The definition is then broken up into two different aspects, positive eugenics and negative eugenics. Positive eugenics is defined as improving a race by focusing on ways to increasing the better population. Incentives are given to those superior races or populations to have childrenRead MoreWar Against The Weak : Eugenics And America s Campaign1193 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAmerican philosophers, theorists, and scientists began experimenting and theorizing the idea of eugenics. Derived from Darwinian theories and the extensive works of Gregor Mendel, eugenics is known as a set of practices aimed at enhancing the human genome into sameness. Edwin BlackÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"War Against the Weak: Eugenics and AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Campaign to Create a Master RaceÃ¢â¬ looks at the horrific background of eugenics, the ones who supported it, and the twisted ends it came to. This source, along with the two othersRead MoreThe Social Construction Of Deviance And Eugenics1542 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesANALYSIS PAPER THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF DEVIANCE AND EUGENICS Ã¢â¬Æ' ABSTRACT In this paper I will be analyzing the social construct of deviance and the topic of Eugenics theoretically, and how this practice transitioned from being deviant back in the early 20th century to a modern technology that can be used to help parents have healthy children. I will use different scholarly sources to compare and review different positions in the theories used as they relate to the topic at hand.Ã¢â¬Æ' Geisy CobasRead MoreEugenics: A Controversial Science Essay examples1160 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEugenics has been a very controversial science that has existed in the world for centuries. Eugenics is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics) or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics)(Dictionary.com, 2005)Read MoreThe Eugenics Movement During The 20th Century1339 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Elements of the American Eugenics movement acted as models for the Nazis, whose radical interpretation of the movement lead to the Holocaust (Dolan DNA Learning Center). Eugenics is simply the controlled reproduction of individuals with Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ genes and discouraging those who have Ã¢â¬Å"badÃ¢â¬ genes against reproduction (Dolan DNA Learning Center). Many Eugenicists lobbied for social legislation to keep racial and ethnic groups segregated. They also sought to restrict immigration and sterilized thoseRead MoreIs Gene Therapy a Form of Eugenics Essay1036 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDoherty SO209 28th March, 2013 Is Gene Therapy a Form of Eugenics? In his article Is Gene Therapy a Form of Eugenics, John Harris discusses the concept of Eugenics when it comes to using Gene Therapy. Harris defines Eugenics as adapting to the production of Ã¢â¬Å"fineÃ¢â¬ offspring, or artificially producing offspring to fit certain criteria. He stresses on how this concept should be achieved. His main argument is that we should be in favor of Eugenics when it comes to potentially saving a child from livingRead MoreAn Evaluation Of The Economic Benefits And Ethical Issues Of Population Control1474 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTitle Population control: an evaluation of the economic benefits and ethical issues of population control through the use of eugenics Background The topic of population has been prevalent in the study of economics but particularly since Thomas Malthus published his book Ã¢â¬ËEssay on the Principle of PopulationÃ¢â¬â¢ (1798). Malthus was the first economist to propose a systematic theory of population. Malthus proposed in his book that humans grow exponentially whereas the food supply grows at an arithmetic
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
President John f. Kennedy once said, The goal of education is the advancement of knowledge and the dissemination of truth. The yearning for higher education has come to a roadblock with the rising prices of college. The average American income cannot keep pace with rising college prices because colleges and universities are building up their schools, creating debt, and putting the burden on their students by raising tuition prices. The average American income cannot keep pace with rising college prices. During ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s presidency, the nation experienced a flourishing economy. Millions of jobs created in the growth of the economy and as a result, unemployment reached remarkable record lows. American income grew at blisteringÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Pear also wrote that households led by a person of the age of twenty-five to thirty-four years old, the median income declined by 4.5 percent, while it only decreased by 5.7 percent for thirty-five to fourty-four year olds, 2 .5 percent for fourty-five to fifty-four year olds, and 7 percent for fifty-five to sixty-four year olds. With huge declines early in the recovery from the recession, black households median income has risen by 3.5% over the past three years, while Hispanic households income, unfortunately, has remained flat since 2011 writes Luhby. With income slowly rising, and with a growing minority population, college accessibility needs to accommodate to the American economy. Colleges and Universities keep building up their schools and creating debt. Every year it seems that an institution expands or renovates their campus. Building bigger academic facilities and extravagant sporting complexes to attract students. It seems most of these expansions are to Ã¢â¬Å"one upÃ¢â¬ the competition. These lavish expenditures have to receive funds somehow. Taking out loans and going into debt seems to be the only answer. At Indiana State University, university trustees requested sixty-four million dollars in state capital improvement funds to finance the Nursing, Health, and Human Services Building renovation and expansion for 2015-2017, according to Indian eGov
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Essay Topic: Ã¢â¬Å"The global reach of liberalism will inevitably lead to peace and security for allÃ¢â¬ what are the grounds for this argument? Answer: Liberalism is a theory of international relations with a view point that human is born good and free. In this question will require a discussion on the Democratic Peace Theory which was emphasised after the Cold War and the fall of the Soviet Union. The main argument was that democratic states tend not to fight other democratic states. We will write a custom essay sample on Liberal Peace or any similar topic only for you Order Now This theory has been associated largely with writings of Michael Doyle and Bruce Russet. Early authors like Immanuel Kant also foreshadowed the theory of peace between liberal democracies in his essay Ã¢â¬Å"Perpetual PeaceÃ¢â¬ written in 1795. The idea that Liberalism will inevitably lead to peace and security was based on the ground that Liberal democracies naturally seek for peace, the spirit of free commerce, the interdependence among states and the principle of Human rights. Liberalism by definition sees human beings as non- violent, born good and seeking to develop ties and as such naturally they are not interested in waging wars. In KantÃ¢â¬â¢s words, peace can be perpetual. War is therefore both unnatural and irrational. According to Doyle wars were created by militaristic and undemocratic government for their own interests. Paine also in his work Ã¢â¬Å"The right of ManÃ¢â¬ said the war system was contrived to preserve the power. War provides governments with the excuses to raise taxes and expand bureaucratic apparatus and increase their control over the citizens. However according Liberals Democracy will create a zone of peace. If we defined democracy as the government of the people for the people by the people then it will be impossible for citizens who bear the burdens of war to elect a government who will take them to war (Doyle 1967: 1151). Nations like France, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy and Austria are less likely to fight any war among them since they have memories of the damages and massive destructions of the world war one and world war two. Democratic states have much respect for civil rights. If it is wrong for an individual within a state to commit a crime against another individual so does it applies to democratic nations. It is wrong for one democratic nation to wage war against another democratic nation. This idea was also developed in KantÃ¢â¬â¢s rgument about the league of peace or pacific federation (Foedus Pacificum) This idea of peace is based on all human beings which stand in an ethical relationship to one another. For KantÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"this league of does not seek any power of sort possessed by any nation, but only the maintenance and security of each nationÃ¢â¬â¢s own freedom Ã¢â¬Å". Doyle will later expand on this proposition that liberal states have a unique ability and willingness to es tablish peaceful relations among themselves. The second key assumption of liberalism on which peace and security can be achieved is the practice of free trade among nations. The mercantilist period of history is linked to the rise of the modern nations in Europe. This period could be described as the time which nations were focused narrowly on gaining wealth and discouraging imports. The mercantilist policies included restrictions on import and development of colonial empires. Mercantilist view was that of the Louis XIVÃ¢â¬â¢s finance Minister, Jean Baptist Colbert who said Ã¢â¬Å"trade is a source of finance and finance is the vital nerve of warÃ¢â¬ According Carr Ã¢â¬Å"the aim of mercantilism was not to promote the welfare of the community and its members but to augment the power of the stateÃ¢â¬ . In process of promoting export mercantile nations setup barriers to discourage import and conflicts were often caused. However Kant said unhindered commerce between the people of the world unite them in a common and peaceful enterprise. Later view by Joseph Schumpeter also supports the claim of Kant. According to Schumpeter, capitalism produces an unwarlike disposition; its populace is Ã¢â¬Å"democratised individualised and rationalisedÃ¢â¬ therefore democratic capitalism leads to peace. Over the last 15 years regional trade agreements have become defining features of the modern economy and a powerful force for globalisation. As of July 2007 more than 380 regional trade agreements had been notified to the World Trade Organisation (Crawford and Fiorentino). As the French philosopher Baron of Montesquieu said in 1748 Ã¢â¬Å"peace is a natural effect of commerceÃ¢â¬ (HumpheryÃ¢â¬â¢s 2004) increasingly many countries are realising that their interest may best be served by integration with like-minded countries that have similar economies. Regional trade integration can support peace. The believe that trade can foster peace among nations have been seen it real world practice when in December 2004 Israel and Egypt signed a trade protocol with the US designed to accelerate the rapprochement between the two countries. This deal allowed the Egyptian to export freely the US. Another examples of this agreement which seeks promote peace through trade is the regional agreement signed by the Tunisian and the Morocco Governments with the EU this in order to curtail the rise and spread fundamentalism in these two countries. These examples justify the claim by the American radical democrat Paine when he announced that Ã¢â¬Å"if commerce were permitted to act to the universal extent it is capable, it would extirpate the system of war. Closely linked to the idea of Free Trade and commerce as means of achieving peace and security among Liberal nations is the notion of interdependence and liberal institutionalism, no nation in the world can claim absolute independence or dependence. All nations are closely linked to each other and have become interdependent on each other. The evolution of communication, transportation, the invention of deadly weapons such as the nuclear bomb, the contagious nature of economy and the growing demographic pressure on the planets are just few of the factors that explain this interdependence. The formation of regional economic groups such as the European Union, the North American Free Trade Agreement in the Latin America, the ASEAN, in Asia and the African Union were inspired the belief that the likelihood of conflict between states would be reduced by creating a common interest in trade and economic collaboration. Liberal Institutionalism also agrees the interdependence of nations can create a zone of peace which Kant called the Pacific Federation of which is made of more than sixty countries. War according to Kant is less probable to occur between any two nations of this federation this does not mean that pacific nations do not go to war. In the nineteenth century countries like the United States and the Great Britain have continually had misunderstanding and wars but after the reformation of the British Parliament in 1832, Britain and the United States were able to negotiate their disputes without resorting to conflict. Britain and France who were rivals in colonial front were able to form an entente against the illiberal Germany before the World War I. President Woodrow Wilson will late proclaim the reigning peace in message of April 2, 1917: Ã¢â¬Å" Our object now as then, is to vindicate the principles of peace and justice in the life of the world as against selfish and autocratic power and to set up amongst the really free and self-governed people of the world such a concert of purpose and as will henceforth ensure the observance of those principles. Ã¢â¬ How to cite Liberal Peace, Papers
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Simple Analysis of Financial Outsourcing. Answer: Introduction Outsourcing is a procedure adopted by many organisations to decrease their expenses by transferring parts of their business functions to third party suppliers, instead of performing it internally in the organisation. This strategy is adopted by companies to reduce their operating costs. It is a common procedure performed by technology companies and other industries. Various business functions such as manufacturing parts, human resources, information technology, legal, call centers, bookkeeping, business analysis, and marketing. There are various large companies outsourcing their business to other organisations such as Staples, IBM, Kingston, Hewlett Packard and much more. This report will discuss from the perspective of IBM, regarding the benefits and drawbacks of outsourcing a particular business function to another company. The aim of this report is to understand the benefits and challenges of outsourcing a business function to the third party. IBM prefers to outsource their business to another company because it reduces their cost of operations. But outsourcing a business has its difficulties as well. The company outsourcing its business losses the control of management over such function, they face the risk of a data leak, a decrease in customers satisfaction and other labour issues. The object of this report is to understand both the advantages and disadvantages of the outsourcing through the perspective of IBM. This report will discuss the perspective of IBM and various other companies that have succeeded and failed while outsourcing to understand the topic in depth. Further, it will discuss benefits and drawbacks that a company faced while outsourcing. The outsourcing strategies applied by IBM and other companies, and their ability to succeed will be discussed. This report will analyse different theories of outsourcing given by various market experts to determine its rewards and limitations. Literature Review Outsourcing is a method of transferring business functions to third party organisations, adopted by different companies to reduce the cost of operations and increase the efficiency of the work. It is a significantly popular method for reducing the cost that is used by companies worldwide, especially enterprises of developed companies (Gospel and Sako 2010). IBM is an American international technology organisation, incorporated in 1911. The company operates in computing, cloud programming, and information technology industry. The firm outsourced their IT process to third party companies from Malaysia, India, and Singapore, which allow them to focus on their core values. The organisation has more than 40 data center globally, engaged in providing IT services to their customers. IBM is known for their expertise in technology outsourcing services (Pierce 2011). Outsourcing is transferring of duties, work and authority to an outside organisation. It allows companies to increase their attention to the core business and assist them to gain a competitive advantage by reducing their cost of operations. Organisations have the option to either outsource whole process or just a part of the process. For example, the paper of Dhar (2012) provided that, IBM transfers the process of monitoring the management of an IT system, but they perform end-user support process internally. This help in increasing the on-site support for workers. According to the research of Gorla and Somers (2014), outsourcing strategy of IBM is focused on achieving improved consumer service quality and decreased operation cost. It helps the enterprise in creating permanently or temporary provisions for employment, skilled labour and improved products design. While formulating the strategies for outsourcing, an organisation should evaluate the potential grounds and all the mechanisms to analyse which part or function of business should be outsourced. Following are the popular business functions that an organisation outsourced: Human Resource management Bookkeeping and accounting process Technical process Service management Manufacturing components process Call centres Research facilities Legal procedures Outsourcing a function of a business can significantly benefit the business and help them gain competitive advantage. In modern time, there are a large number of companies that have adopted outsourcing as a key part of their business procedure. There are numerous advantages enjoyed by IBM through outsourcing their business function. IBM reduce several of their operational costs by outsourcing their business function such as employee salary expenses, workplace expenses and other expenses related to providing workplace or manufacturing set-up to the employees. The cost of providing these facilities are way cheaper in outside countries as compare to developed countries. It helps IBM in gaining a cost advantage over its competitors (Mohr, Sengupta and Slater 2011). Attention to Core Business By outsourcing the remaining functions of operations, an organisation can focus on the key elements of their business. The outsourcing allows IBM to implement all their resources in core business activity and help improve their business functions. According to Han and Mithas (2013), the company focus on manufacturing computer hardware in America and transfer their information technology services to third party companies. This allows IBM to enhance the quality and efficiency of their hardware since they are not disrupted by daily activities of IT services. Organisations usually outsourced their business to companies who are specialised in the particular field. The employees of the enterprise have skills, equipments and technical knowledge to perform such task better than outsourcing company. This help company performed their tasks with higher efficiency, less time and better quality. IBM gained the same advantage by outsourcing their IT services to 40 of their data center worldwide. In the research of Zhang and Gu (2013), Tesco rather than teaching their employees regarding the latest technology or hiring new employees, the company outsourced the work to third parties. This helps the enterprise in reducing the time and expenses for the operations and gained them a competitive advantage. The benefit of outsourcing includes a high level of customers satisfaction since the outsourced work is performed by experts. The contract of outsourcing bound the company to perform their task and services with high level of quality. Therefore, if an employee gets sick, the organisation is bound to find a substitute to complete their work. IBM has more than 380,000 employees, and the majority of their employees are in their data centers situated in Malaysia, India, and Singapore. This allows the company to provide 24-hour service to their customers with high expertise. The organisation enjoys a high rate of customers satisfaction due to the support from their data centers. Operational efficiency Outsourcing provides an organisation expertise of third parties that ensure more efficiency in the workplace. This allows faster achievement of tasks while maintaining a high level of quality. The outsourcing of remaining functions allows employees to focus on essential tasks and completing them with efficiency. IBM has implemented an efficient structure in the organisation, which allows them to focus on core objectives, instead of secondary tasks such as daily supervision of data centers. The agreement of outsourcing allows organisations to share their business risk with other organisations. The contract of outsourcing forced the organisation to provide a high quality of services. If they failed to do so, then outsourcing company can charge them for compensation and sue them in court. This allows the organisation to share risks and it compels companies to maintain a quality in their services. IBM implements this policy to ensure high quality of services, and share their risk with other organisations (Hsuan and Mahnke 2011). Along with numerous advantages, there are several disadvantages in the outsourcing process. The popularity of outsourcing has created various new administrative problems that are faced by organisations while outsourcing their business. The strategy of outsourcing is easy to replicate by organisations. One organisation can gain competitive advantage through outsourcing by its competitors can apply the same strategy in their business model. For example, IBM reduced its cost by outsourcing their IT services but its competitor gained the same advantage as well such as Hewlett-Packard and Dell. The outsourcing strategy also introduces new competition for organisations since it is applied by most technology companies (Mourdoukoutas 2011). Forfeiture of Managerial Control After signing the outsourcing agreement, a company transfers its responsibilities, rights, duties, and authority of performing tasks, in a particular division, to the third party. The company owns the division but the managerial control gets transferred to another firm. The outsourcing firm might not work according to the principle of the organisation, or they could have several clients which reduce their focus on organisational tasks. IBM faced the same problems since most of their data centers are situated in Malaysia, India, and Singapore, therefore the application of proper managerial control over them is difficult for the company (Gonzalez, Gasco and Llopis 2010). While outsourcing their business functions, a company deals with rules and regulations of different organisations and countries. The contract of outsourcing specifies the charges of services but the organisation could face various hidden expenses. There could be additional legal charges for verifying the outsourcing agreement. The change in market regulation of India can affect the cost of IBM since they have to follow new rules and implement them in organisational structure (Jain, Hasija and Popescu 2013). The information and data of a company are its essential elements and leakage of data could affect the revenue of a business. According to Sparrow (2012), while outsourcing a business, the company faces a threat on confidentiality of their data. The organisation has to share its data with another company, and their poor regulation can leak the data of a company. IBM faces the same risk since they have to share confidential information of their clients with data centers, to provide their services. Poor regulation of one data center can leak important information of clients which could be detrimental for the organisation. According to Epstein (2012), outsourcing a business could reduce the reputation and standard of quality of an organisation. For example, if a car gets damaged due to a faulty part manufactured by the outsourced organisation, then the car company faced the burden of a damaged reputation. The company could charge the outsourced company for the expenses but the loss of reputation remains with the car company. Language obstacles According to Zirpoli and Becker (2011), if a company outsourced its business function of the call center to an organisation of different country, then the difference in language barrier could be dissatisfied for the consumer. The customer could get frustrated while dealing with an operator with a strong accent. IBM outsourced its work to Malaysia, India, and Singapore, and many people there have a thick accent which can be frustrating for IBMs clients to understand. The research of Willcocks and Cullen (2013), while outsourcing their business, a company required to dismiss their employees. Unless the company clearly planned their process, the layoffs are unavoidable. This is difficult for the organisation and if not managed properly it could adversely affect other workers. A recent post from Economic times provided that, IBM India may dismiss more than 5,000 employees in next few months (Dayama 2017). A decision like this affects the reputation of the organisation and also affects the productivity of employees. IBM has gained a huge advantage over its competitors through outsourcing their information technology services to third party companies. The organisation is popular of their expertise over the outsourcing process. In 2010, IBM announced, Next-Generation BPO which will provide their customers extended services and resources to make knowledgeable decisions (Miozzo and Grimshaw 2011). IBM conducted research through their scientists over more than 56 companies with 38 non-IBM and 18 IBM clients. The study concluded that there is a relation between outsourcing of IT services and improvement in main business functions for those companies. Outsourcing IT services are a part of effective management strategy, which can be used by the organisation in enhancing their business performance (IBM 2010). According to the research, benefits of outsourcing impacted over following aspects of a business (Figure 1): Selling, General, and Administrative Costs: The companies find a slow growth in rate of selling, general and administrative cost because of outsourcing. The SGA costs of outsourcing organisation were less than 4.2 points compared to their competitors. The rate of Return on Assets: The rate of return on assets of companies has grown rapidly. Their rate was 7.5 points lower than market standards but after implementing outsourcing strategy the rate of return on assets raised 16.1 points. Income before Interest and Taxes: More than two third of researched companies seen a growth in income as compared to their competitors. The outsourcing companies recorded a growth of 11.8 points higher than their competitors, in their income. Future benefits: The length of outsourcing agreement also affect its benefits. A longer outsourcing agreement is more likely to enhance the profits results of an organisation. 54 percent of research companies with less than one year of outsourcing contract did not experience positive income growth, while around 71 percent of organisations with more than one year of agreement seen a positive income rate for more than $100 million. According to Ellyn (2005), the research proved the advantages of outsourcing the IT service function of organisations. IBM has succeeded in the outsourcing business by introducing new technology and strategies. The company keeps updating their policies according to the marketing conditions of countries where they outsourced. The organisation focused on providing a better working environment to its employees, to enhance their productivity. The outsourcing strategy of IBM allows them to provide their customers a high quality of services. The rate of customers satisfaction is significantly high in IBM, as compared to its competitors. The research of Mclvor (2010) provided that, the strategy of outsourcing has been proven to be successful in case of IBM and various other companies as well, such as Accenture, Manulife, and Fluor. The president of Flour, Robert Taylor said that the flexibility provided due to the outsourcing procedure has assisted their company in increasing their ventures sites. Outsourcing is providing more benefits to an organisation than just cost reduction and efficient working. The strategy allows IBM to enhance their capabilities globally and achieves efficiency in business. The outsourcing strategy provides IBM flexibility and effect that help in their sustainable development in the future (Savvas 2012). Conclusion From the above report, it can be concluded that various organisations outsourced different business function of their company. This provides them several advantages such as cost reduction, customer service enhancement, flexibility and expertise over its business function. But companies face different drawbacks such as easy replication, hidden costs, lay-offs, loss of managerial control and quality risk. Various companies such as IBM have successfully implemented an outsourcing strategy in their organisation that allows them to enhance the quality of their customer services and increase their efficiency. Before outsourcing their business functions, a company should establish clear and strong guidelines to assist them in the process of outsourcing. References Dayama, R., 2017. IBM India may sack 5,000 employees over next few quarters. Economic Times. 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