Sunday, March 22, 2020

Apparent Feminisms In The Play Trifles Essays - Trifles,

Apparent Feminisms In The Play Trifles Apparent Feminisms in the Play Trifles Male domination in 1916, when Susan Glaspells play Trifles was written, was the way of life. Men controlled most women and women were not very outspoken during that time period. Mr. Wright in her play was no different from the rest, but she made him a symbol of all the men in the community. The play opens at the scene of the crime. The first three characters who enter the room are the three men involved in the investigation of the murder at hand. The purpose of their visit is to find evidence of motivation of murder, but the women who they leave downstairs find the very evidence that they are looking for. The men presume the women to be harmless for a couple of reasons one being: the women are left in the kitchen where, according to the Sheriff, there are nothing but kitchen things(1174). His comment was in response to the County Attorneys question about the Sheriff being convinced that there was nothing important in the kitchen nothing that would point to any motive (1174). The concerns of the women are considered little or silly and insignificant and this is the most important reason for the mens comments about them. The Sheriff laughs when the women express that maybe the frozen preserves have some meaning (1174). Mr. Hale, who is the husband of one of the women, comments women are used to worrying over trifles (1174). They figure the women are not dangerous because they are in a room where there could not possibly be any evidence, but also because they believe that the womens minds are so limited to trifles that they are not a threat to the investigation. The men feel that the women cannot think, cannot act, and cannot do any harm to their investigative work. However, the women find lots of evidence in that room. They do think, act, and sabotage the investigation. They find the very evidence that the men are looking for. In most stories of this nature the men are the center of attention, but Glaspell opens our eyes to something new. Not only do the men not solve the case, but they also arent the center of attention. Even though the men were not using lots of demeaning dialogue and they are not patronizing the women, it is clear that they are using the traditional manly ways to put the women down. Men say that they are superior to women and that they can do everything by themselves, but why is it that the County Attorneys biggest dilemma is that he cannot figure this case out by himself yet the women can? The mens lack of knowledge, the failure to solve the case, and the mens insignificance in the play speak for themselves. This is a reversal of the characterizations of the women of that time period. Glaspell was successful in showing us this by letting the audience see everything from a womans point of view. Not only were the men superficial feminists, they were simply trifles. Theater

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Originality or Comformity essays

Originality or Comformity essays Many people use clothes to communicate thoughts, feelings and expressions. If school uniforms were mandated, this form of expression would be stifled. For most students, uniforms would be a drudgery to wear. First of all, uniqueness would be hard to show amongst the students. If everyone looked the same, how could anyone be an individualist? We d start to become; and eventually be, conformists. In the same way that originality is lost, part of our personal freedom is infringed, by making students wear uniforms. Students use clothing to express opinions, and students have a right to an opinion, dont they? The charter of rights and freedoms states that, every person is entitled to the freedom of choice. If students are forced to wear a uniform, and robbed of their freedom of choice, then several statements from the charter of rights and freedoms, would be made untrue. If a students clothing is dictated to them, it halts their liberty of choice and expression. Another consideration of uniforms is that they must be cleaned constantly. To maintain a consistent personal hygiene, uniforms would have to be cleaned at a constant rate. Rem ember, there is a limited amount of uniforms per student, so students cant wear a different set (of uniforms) everyday. Also, today, no service comes without a charge. Thus cleaning the uniforms regularly would cost money. Some uniforms even need to be dry- cleaned. Through the eyes of a teenager, expression of thoughts and ideas is one of the most important forms of communication, and uniforms would make this almost impossible. Clothing is a legitimate way for many people to express themselves as human beings. ...

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Humanities - Modernism in Art, Literature and Film Essay

Humanities - Modernism in Art, Literature and Film - Essay Example The essay "Humanities - Modernism in Art, Literature and Film" gives a detailed information about the art. literature and film of postmodernism era. The first half of the nineteenth century Europe witnessed a large number of wars and revolution that consequently lead to â€Å"turning away† form traditional form of aesthetics and evolved a new genre of art, culture and social activities. Modernism rejected the doctrine of the conviction in â€Å"Enlightenment Thinking† and negated the existence of an empathetic and omnipotent creator. But these essentially doesn’t mean that the movement of modernism negated the existence for all kinds of religion and existence of god, nor do they rejected every kind of â€Å"Enlightened Thought†, to be more precise rather, modernism was a movement that challenged and questioned the maxims of the previous age. Modernism, therefore, marks a very distinguishing difference with the Victorian bourgeois morality and a complete de viation from the nineteenth century optimism. It profoundly displayed pessimistic scenario of a culture in disorder. Modernism, as a movement and as an aesthetic form, is subjected to myriads of criticism. Charles Baudelaire is treated as one of the major poets of the modernist movement and a staunch follower and patron of modern art and literature. Baudelaire was the first author of the symbolist tradition. In his ‘To the Bourgeois and The Heroism of Modern Life, from Salons of 1845 and 1846’, Baudelaire wrote, â€Å"It is true that the great tradition has been lost..."

Monday, February 3, 2020

Assignment 10 Chapter 9 Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

10 Chapter 9 - Assignment Example Resource loading gives a project planner a rough estimate of the resources that are required for a given project. Resource loading is determined to a large extent by the time to be taken by each project activity. Resource loading differs from resource leveling in that resource leveling aims at appropriate resource allocation such that the activity is not over-allocated any resource. It also reduces any chances of under-allocation of resources. Resource leveling can be done by delaying or splitting an activity until when the required resource is available. Critical chain concept was developed to solve the problem of time wastage in project implementation. Critical chain is explained as the longest chain of project tasks that are logically dependent. Since the planner cannot be sure of the critical chain timeline, buffers are used manage and control any variations that might occur. Buffers ensure that the project finish date is not

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Effect of Mineral Deficiency on Plant Growth

Effect of Mineral Deficiency on Plant Growth Aim To investigate the effect of mineral deficiencies towards the growth of Lemna sp Introduction Plants need water, carbon dioxide and sunlight to synthesise carbohydrates during photosynthesis. To synthesise nutrients and other organic substances, plants need additional elements. Mineral elements are one of the essential chemical elements required by plants in order to achieve optimal growth and development. Mineral elements are mostly obtained in the form of inorganic ions from the soil through their roots. Most of the time, the mineral ions in soil water are present only in low concentration, often lower than that in cytoplasm of root cells. So, in order to obtain mineral ions into the cells, they are taken up selectively against the concentration gradient by active transport, using energy from the respiration of plants.The uptake process occurs with the help of the specific protein pumps in the plasma membrane of the root cells. This usually results in accumulation of mineral ions in the root cells. The mineral ions are then carried in the apoplast or symplast pathway until they reach the endodermis containing impermeable Casparian strip.They then enter the cytoplasm of cells either by diffusion or active transport and reach the xylem of the plant to be transported in the water that moves up continuously in the transpiration stream. Once the mineral ions reach the tissues where they are needed, they move out of the xylem into the cells either by diffusion or active transport, depending on the permeability of cell membranes and relative concentrations of ions inside and outside the cells. Generally, mineral elements required by plants can be divided into two categories, macronutrients and micronutrients. Macronutrients can be broken into two more groups: primary and secondary nutrients. The primary nutrients are nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). These major nutrients usually are lacking from the soil first because plants use large amounts for their growth and survival. The secondary nutrients are calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S). There are usually enough of these nutrients in the soil so fertilization is not always needed. Also, large amounts of Calcium and Magnesium are added when lime is applied to acidic soils. Sulfur is usually found in sufficient amounts from to slow decomposition of soil organic matter, an important reason for not throwing out grass clippings and leaves.Nitrogen is a part of all living cells and is a necessary part of all proteins, enzymes and metabolic processes involved in the synthesis and transfer of energy. Nitrogen is a part of chlorophyll, the green pigment of the plant that is responsible for photosynthesis.Helps plants with rapid growth, increasing seed and fruit production and improving the quality of leaf and forage crops. Nitrogen often comes from fertilizer application and from the air (legumes get their N from the atmosphere, water or rainfall contributes very little nitrogen). Like nitrogen, phosphorus (P) is an essential part of the process of photosynthesis. Involved in the formation of all oils, sugars, starches, etc. Helps with the transformation of solar energy into chemical energy; proper plant maturation; withstanding stress. Effects rapid growth. Encourages blooming and root growth. Phosphorus often comes from fertilizer, bone meal, and superphosphate. Potassium is absorbed by plants in larger amounts than any other mineral element except nitrogen and, in some cases, calcium. Helps in the building of protein, photosynthesis, fruit quality and reduction of diseases. Potassium is supplied to plants by soil minerals, organic materials, and fertilizer. Calcium, an essential part of plant cell wall structure, provides for normal transport and retention of other elements as well as strength in the plant. It is also thought to counteract the effect of alkali salts and organic acids within a plant. Sources of calcium are dolomitic lime, gypsum, and superph osphate. Magnesium is part of the chlorophyll in all green plants and essential for photosynthesis. It also helps activate many plant enzymes needed for growth. Soil minerals, organic material, fertilizers, and dolomitic limestone are sources of magnesium for plants. Sulfur is essential plant food for production of protein. Promotes activity and development of enzymes and vitamins. Helps in chlorophyll formation. Improves root growth and seed production. Helps with vigorous plant growth and resistance to cold. Sulfur may be supplied to the soil from rainwater. It is also added in some fertilizers as an impurity, especially the lower grade fertilizers. Lemna is a genus of free-floating aquatic plants from the duckweed family. These rapidly-growing plants have found uses as a model system for studies in community ecology, basic plant biology, in ecotoxicology, in production of biopharmaceuticals, and as a source of animal feeds for agriculture and aquaculture. The duckweeds have been classified as a separate family, the Lemnaceae, but some researchers (the AGP II) consider the duckweeds members of the Araceae.Lemna species grow as simple free-floating thalli on or just beneath the water surface. Most are small, not exceeding 5 mm in length, except Lemna trisulca which is elongated and has a branched structure. Lemna thalli have a single root, which distinguishes them from related genera Spirodela and Landoltia. The plants grow mainly by vegetative reproduction: two daughter plants bud off from the adult plant. This form of growth allows very rapid colonisation of new water. Duckweeds are flowering plants, and nearly all of them are known to reproduce sexually, flowering and producing seed under appropriate conditions. Certain duckweeds (e.g. L. gibba) are long day plants, while others (e.g. L. minor) are short day plants.When Lemna invades a waterway, it can be removed mechanically, by the addition of herbivorous fish (e.g. grass carp) or treated with a herbicide.The rapid growth of duckweeds finds application in bioremediation of polluted waters and as test organisms for environmental studies. It is also being used as an expression system for economical production of complex biopharmaceuticals. Duckweed meal (dried duckweed) is a good cattle feed. It contains 25-45% proteins (depending on the growth conditions), 4.4% fat, and 8-10% fibre, measured by dry weight. Lemna has been transformed by molecular biologists to express proteins of pharmaceutical interest. Expression constructs were engineered to cause Lemna to secrete the transformed proteins into the growth medium at high yield. Since the Lemna is grown on a simple medium, this substantially reduces the burden of protein purification in preparing such proteins for medical use, promising substantial reductions in manufacturing costs. In addition, the host Lemna can be engineered to cause secretion of proteins with human patterns of glycosylation, an improvement over conventional plant gene-expression systems. Several such products are being developed, including monoclonal antibodies. Problem Statement: How do the deficiencies of minerals affect the growth of Lemna sp ? Hypothesis: Lemna plants grow healthily in complete culture solution. When there is deficiency of certain minerals, Lemna plants will show the symptoms of deficiency of that particular minerals. Variables Manipulated: Type of mineral deficiencies Responding: The growth of Lemna sp Fixed: Intensity of sunlight, type,size and number of Lemna plants used, concentration of carbon dioxide and volume of solution Apparatus Petri dishes Petri dishes cover forceps measuring cylinder droppers. Materials A range of solutions including solutions with all solutions present lacking nitrogen, NO3- lacking phosphate, PO43- lacing potassium, K+ lacking magnesium, Mg2+ lacking calcium, Ca2+ lacking zinc, Zn2+ lacking iron, Fe2+ Lemna Stickers Tissue paper Procedures One petri dish and its cover is washed using water and dried using tissue paper. Four pairs of Lemna sp are picked out using a forceps and placed inside the clean petri dish. This step is done with extra care as to minimise the damage done to the Lemna sp. Step 1 and 2 are repeated 8 times to prepare 8 petri dishes , each containing 4 pair of Lemna sp. The culture solutions are measured at 15ml using a measuring cylinder. Every petri dish is then filled with different culture solutions with different mineral deficiencies, NO3-,PO43-,K+,Mg2+,Ca2+,Zn2+,Fe2. The last petri dish is filled with perfect culture solution in which all the minerals are present. All the petri dishes are placed at a spot where light intensity is just sufficient for the Lemna sp to grow. The Lemna sp are observed carefully for a full 10days of study. The Lemna sp. are observed for the number of leaves ,the colour of leaves and the number of plants with roots. The observations or data are recorded into a table. Results Day 2 Number of live plants:  4 Number of green leaves:  10 Number of plants with roots:  1 Growth abnormalities:  None Day 4 Number of live plants:  6 Number of green leaves:  17 Number of plants with roots:  3 Growth abnormalities:  None Day 6 Number of live plants:  12 Number of green leaves:  28 Number of plants with roots:  6 Growth abnormalities:  None Day 8 Number of live plants:  15 Number of green leaves:  36 Number of plants with roots:  11 Growth abnormalities:  None Day 10 Number of live plants:  20 Number of green leaves:  57 Number of plants with roots:  13 Growth abnormalities:  None Table 1 Data for normal culture solution (Control experiment) Number of live plants:   Number of green leaves:   Number of plants with roots:   Growth abnormalities:   Day 2 Number of live plants:  4 Number of green leaves:  8 Number of plants with roots:  21 Growth abnormalities:  None Day 4 Number of live plants:  4 Number of green leaves:  11 Number of plants with roots:  2 Growth abnormalities:  Leaves turn pale green Day 6 Number of live plants:  6 Number of green leaves:  17 Number of plants with roots:  4 Growth abnormalities:   Growth of root stunted Leaves turn yellowish Day 8 Number of live plants:  7 Number of green leaves:  22 Number of plants with roots:  5 Growth abnormalities:   Growth stunted Leaves turn paler and yellowish Day 10 Number of live plants:  8 Number of green leaves:  27 Number of plants with roots:  6 Growth abnormalities:   Growth of root stunted Leaves turn very pale green or yellowish Table 2 Data for culture solution lacking nitrate ions Day 2 Number of live plants:  4 Number of green leaves:  8 Number of plants with roots:  0 Growth abnormalities:  None Day 4 Number of live plants:  6 Number of green leaves:  13 Number of plants with roots:  1 Growth abnormalities:  None Day 6 Number of live plants:  7 Number of green leaves:  16 Number of plants with roots:  2 Growth abnormalities:  Leaves turn pale green Day 8 Number of live plants:  9 Number of green leaves:  20 Number of plants with roots:  4 Growth abnormalities:   Leaves turn pale green and yellowish Some leaves appear to be twisted Day 10 Number of live plants:  11 Number of green leaves:  24 Number of plants with roots:  6 Growth abnormalities:   Most leaves turn yellowish Some leaves bleached Table 3 Data for culture solution lacking of sulphate ions Day 2 Number of live plants:  4 Number of green leaves:  8 Number of plants with roots:  0 Growth abnormalities:  Edges of leaves turn yellow Day 4 Number of live plants:  5 Number of green leaves:  10 Number of plants with roots:  1 Growth abnormalities:  Leaves turn yellow Day 6 Number of live plants:  7 Number of green leaves:  15 Number of plants with roots:  2 Growth abnormalities:  Some leaves curl and crinkle Day 8 Number of live plants:  9 Number of green leaves:  19 Number of plants with roots:  3 Growth abnormalities:  Leaves turn yellow Day 10 Number of live plants:  10 Number of green leaves:  22 Number of plants with roots:  5 Growth abnormalities:   Leaves turn yellow Some leaves decompose Table 4 Data for culture solution lacking of potassium ions Day 2 Number of live plants:  4 Number of green leaves:  8 Number of plants with roots:  0 Growth abnormalities:  None Day 4 Number of live plants:  5 Number of green leaves:  10 Number of plants with roots:  0 Growth abnormalities:  Leaves turn pale green Day 6 Number of live plants:  7 Number of green leaves:  19 Number of plants with roots:  1 Growth abnormalities:  Leaves turn pale green or yellowish Day 8 Number of live plants:  8 Number of green leaves:  22 Number of plants with roots:  2 Growth abnormalities:  Leaves turn white and yellowish Day 10 Number of live plants:  9 Number of green leaves:  25 Number of plants with roots:  4 Growth abnormalities:  Almost all leaves yellow or bleached Table 5 Data for culture solution lacking of magnesium ions Day 2 Number of live plants:  2 Number of green leaves:  4 Number of plants with roots:  0 Growth abnormalities:   All plants die Areas between leaf veins turn yellow Day 4 Number of live plants:  0 Number of green leaves:  0 Number of plants with roots:  0 Growth abnormalities:  Leaves turn white Day 6 Number of live plants:  0 Number of green leaves:  0 Number of plants with roots:  0 Growth abnormalities:  Leaves turn white Day 8 Number of live plants:  0 Number of green leaves:  0 Number of plants with roots:  0 Growth abnormalities:  Leaves turn white and disintegrate Day 10 Number of live plants:  0 Number of green leaves:  0 Number of plants with roots:  0 Growth abnormalities:  Leaves disintegrate Table 6 Data for culture solution lacking of calcium ions Day 2 Number of live plants:  4 Number of green leaves:  9 Number of plants with roots:  0 Growth abnormalities:  None Day 4 Number of live plants:  6 Number of green leaves:  17 Number of plants with roots:  2 Growth abnormalities:  Leaves turn yellowish Day 6 Number of live plants:  9 Number of green leaves:  23 Number of plants with roots:  6 Growth abnormalities:  Some leaves turn pale green Day 8 Number of live plants:  13 Number of green leaves:  30 Number of plants with roots:  11 Growth abnormalities:  Some leaves turn dark green with red or purple spots Day 10 Number of live plants:  15 Number of green leaves:  34 Number of plants with roots:  12 Growth abnormalities:   Stunted growth Roots grow poorly Table 7 Data for culture solution lacking of phosphate ions Day 2 Number of live plants:  4 Number of green leaves:  8 Number of plants with roots:  1 Growth abnormalities:  None Day 4 Number of live plants:  7 Number of green leaves:  16 Number of plants with roots:  4 Growth abnormalities:  Leaves turn pale green Day 6 Number of live plants:  11 Number of green leaves:  29 Number of plants with roots:  7 Growth abnormalities:  Leaves turn pale green or yellow Day 8 Number of live plants:  14 Number of green leaves:  32 Number of plants with roots:  10 Growth abnormalities:  Some leaves completely bleached Day 10 Number of live plants:  18 Number of green leaves:  41 Number of plants with roots:  14 Growth abnormalities:  Leaves turn pale green or yellow or completely bleached Table 8 Data for culture solution lacking of iron ions Discussion In this experiment, we are determining the effect of minerals deficiencies on the growth of Lemna  sp. The manipulated variable used is the type of minerals deficiencies. The culture solutions used in  this experiment have different minerals deficiencies which are Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfate, Phosphate, Nitrate, Iron, and Potassium ions. There is a solution which does not have any minerals deficiencies. It is a perfect culture solution. This culture solution is used as a control in this experiment to compare the effect of different minerals deficiencies with the perfect culture solution. The conditions of Lemna sp. in other culturesolutions with minerals deficiencies are compared with the Lemna sp. in the control solution. The responding variable is growth of the Lemna sp. where we count the number of leaves and observe the colour of leaves at the end of experiment. Lemna sp. is used because they are easy to find, observe and count the number of leaves. The number and colour of t he leaves are recorded into a table. The fixed variable used is the amount of sunlight and air obtained. The petri dishes which are involved in the experiment are placed on a spot where sunlight can reach them. This situation is fixed so that it will not affect the result which is the number and colour of the leaves. Besides, volume of culture solution is also one of the fixed variable. This is an important fixed variable because different volume of culture solution will affect the rate of growth of Lemna sp. moreover, different volume of culture solution will also affect the number of leaves at the end of experiment. Thus, constant or fixed volume of each culture solution is needed so that it will give a valid result for the data. Last but not least, type of plant used is also another fixed variable. Different plants have different growth rate. Therefore, Lemna sp. is used because it is easy to find and observe. Every petri dishes need to be synchronised together by using Lemna sp. Interpretation of Data The analysis of data can be done by tabulating the data from Table 1. Table 1 show the observations obtained on the growth of Lemna plants after ten days of investigation. Based on the results obtained, it can be seen that the absence of different mineral elements has different effects on growth of Lemna plants. Lemna plants grow into healthy plants in complete culture solution. Their growth increases rapidly as seen from the table with number of live plants increases from 4 to 20, number of green leaves increases from 10 to 57 and number of plants with roots increases from 1 to 13. There is no growth abnormality. This is because normal culture solution provides them with all the necessary mineral. ions at appropriate concentrations for optimal growth. In culture solution deficient of nitrogen ions, chlorosis takes place as the leaves turn pale, due to lack of chlorophyll as it plays a role as a major component of chlorophyll. Nitrate ion is needed for the formation of amino acid, enzymes and plant hormones. Lacking of nitrate ion causes no amino acids, enzymes and plant hormones produced at all. Photosynthetic enzymes and hormones which is essential for the metabolism of plant cell cannot be made. Therefore, the growth is stunted with only minor increase of number of live plants from 4 to 8, and increase in number of green leaves until the end of experiment with a difference of 5 and a notable decrease in number of plants with roots from 21 to 6. Sulphate ions deficiency affects the production of chlorophyll leading to an overall chlorosis of the leaves with general yellowing of leaves observed. This is observed with a steady increase in number of green leaves, with difference of 4 at the end of experiment, indicating that more leaves are turning yellow. Some leaves appear to be twisted and brittle. Stunted root growth is also observed as towards the end of the experiment, the root growth is constant with difference of 2 plants with roots observed every 2 days. Potassium ions deficiency shows first in marginal chlorosis, that is yellowing at the edges of the leaves as observed on Day 2. It is also observed that the number of live plants and green leaves increases with a decreasing rate with the leaves curl and being crinkly. Some parts of the plants decompose as seen on Day 10 as premature death occurs because lack of potassium affects various activities of plants such as protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, enzymatic activities and others. Potassium ion is needed for the active transport in the guard cells. Guard cells actively pumps in potassium ion so that the stoma will open as water flow by osmosis from low solute concentration region to high solute concentration region. Lacking of potassium ion causes the stoma to close. This eventually affect the rate of photosynthesis. Sugars cannot be made and the metabolism of plant cells is affected. Therefore, the growth rate is affected and the number of leaves at the end of experiment i s reduced. As magnesium is an essential part of the chlorophyll molecule, plants lacking of magnesium show chlorosis in which all the leaves turn yellow and eventually die. In the absence of magnesium, the synthesis of the chlorophyll is inhibited. This is shown with the small and decreasing difference in number of live plants and green leaves towards the end of the experiment, illustrating that number of leaves turning yellow or white increases, because of chlorosis. In culture solution deficient of calcium ions , areas between leaf veins become yellow are observed on second day. The leaves have distorted shape. Growth of the leaves is stunted and the growing points die back too as lack of calcium affects plant cell growth and enzymatic reactions. This is shown with no more living Lemna plants from Day 4 onwards as all the leaves turn white and disintegrate. This happens because calcium ion is needed for the formation of cell wall during cell division. Lacking of calcium ion will cause no cell division occur as calcium pectate cannot be formed. Permeability of the cell is also affected. Lacking of calcium causes the cell sap and the cytosol diffuse out of the cell. This will cause the death of cells. Phosphorus deficiency results the leaves turning to dark green color with red or purple spots on them surfacing on the day 8 of the experiment. They grow slowly and their roots grow poorly as compared to others with only difference of 1 plant with root between Day 8 and 10. This happens because phosphorus is necessary in almost all aspects of growth and metabolism in plants. In culture solution deficient of iron, there is chlorosis (yellowing of leaves) at the base of the leaves, leading to some completely bleached leaves. Deficiency in iron leads to decrease in chlorophyll molecules, causing chlorosis. However, in this experiment, the number of lives plants, green leaves and plants with roots generally increases instead of decreases. Ferum ion is needed for the formation of chlorophyll. Lacking of ferum ion causes no synthesis of chlorophyll. No production of chlorophyll will cause the colour of leaves to change as the colour of chlorophyll is green. Source of errors and ways to overcome these error: Errors are present when the experiment is being conducted, leading to discrepancy and inaccuracy in results obtained. No measurement is exact. All types of measurement will have some degree of error or uncertainty. Generally, errors can be divided into systematic errors and random errors. Systematic errors are cumulative errors that can be corrected, if known. Random errors are errors arise from unknown and unpredictable variations in condition while carrying out the experiment. Random errors may be due to human limitations, lack of sensitivity, natural environment and use of wrong technique of measurement. Random errors are present in this experiment. Thus, it is best to be minimized by repeating the experiment a couple of times. Parallax error is one example of random errors. It is an error in reading an instrument when the observers eyes are not in a line perpendicular to the plane of the scale of measuring instrument. For this experiment, the culture solution placed into each petri dish may not be exactly 15cm3. This happens when the position of the eyes is not directly perpendicular to the meniscus of the culture solution in the 10cm3 measuring cylinder. Varying volume of culture solution in different petri dishes may slightly affect the growth of the Lemna plants as the higher the volume of culture solution, the higher the amount of mineral nutrients present, the higher the rate of growth of Lemna plants. Thus, to improve the accuracy of data, parallax error should be avoided while taking any measurement in the experiment. Furthermore, human errors like being too harsh when handling the Lemna plants is also one of the sources. This may do damage to the plants and greatly affects the survival rate and the growth of the plant. The observers may also wrongly count the number of leaves leading to unreliable results being produced. Limitations: The impurities found in the culture solution will affect the validity of the result. This occurs when the culture solution is being prepared. The impurities contained inside the water will enter the culture solution and hence contaminate the solution. This varies the amount of minerals found within each solution and this may affects the growth of Lemna sp. In addition, there is also limitation from the visual method of diagnosis used in obtaining results of the experiment. This is because symptoms of certain mineral deficiencies may be suppressed by others factor besides lack of certain mineral elements. For example, the weather conditions such as light illumination. Light illumination to which the Lemna plants are exposed to may vary when a few petri dishes are placed too close together or on top of another, blocking each other, affecting the amount of light received by the Lemna plants in the petri dishes. All these may lead to wrong results and conclusions being obtained. Thus, we ather conditions should be ensured being one of the constant variables in this investigation too. Besides, the disease-causing microorganisms will cause the death of the Lemna sp. indirectly. This will also affect the number of leaves at the end of experiment obtained and the observers may be ignorant for this fact and attribute the death of the Lemna plants to the deficiencies of certain minerals. Intraspecific competition is also present among the Lemna plants. They may compete for all the known necessities, like water, air sunlight as well as minerals. Those that failed to compete maybe wiped out and hence lead to death. This point also points out that the death in number of Lemna plants may not be completely due to the deficiencies of minerals in plants. Human limitation is one of the limitation and random errors in this experiment. The results of the experiment may have been affected due to the limitation in the observers observation skills when observing the growth of plants. Although the deficiency symptoms shown by Lemna plants for each mineral elements investigated are quite visually distinct, mistakes can still occur especially when they are viewed by different observers. For example, different observers may misidentify and count different number of Lemna leaves in a petri dish. Besides that, observer may also mixed up between different deficiency symptoms shown by Lemna plants especially those complicated ones, leading to inaccuracy of results. To minimize such error, the observations on the Lemna plants should be carried

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Unequal Distribution of Power

Marxist speaks about the unequal distribution of power and wealth and resources in a society. They believe the ones with the resources in a society. They believe that the ones with the resources are the ones oppressing those without those resources. Marxist links their theory to deviance by saying because some have access to fewer resources in the Capitalist society they are seen as more likely to commit crime. Marxist speaks about the upper classes using their power influence and their wealth to hide their crimes and deviant behaviours.They buy their way out of trouble by hiring attorneys and using bribes. Marxist thought to argue that deviance is deliberately chosen and often political in nature. They rejected the idea that deviance is ‘determined’ by factors such as biology, personality, anomie, social disorganization or labels. Rather they argued, individuals actively choose to engage in deviant behaviour respond to the inequalities of the capitalist system. Because this is so, they set up a system where there is something such as social control agents these are they who administer the response to deviance such as police and the army.Although the oppressed groups in society (proletariat) may behave or act deviant, whether or not they do they are more likely to be labelled deviant. For instance in Trinidad there is some communities that are seen as or labelled as deviant places because of its crime rate. Although, not everyone living there are criminals are categorized or group together with that so called deviant community. For instance someone who lives in Lavantille may go to an interview has all the qualifications but because he/ she resides there they may not be ‘‘qualified’’ for the job.The other social classes are not crime-free, the ruling groups in society develop means and mechanisms to protect their interest according to conflict theorist who argue that laws are created protect and sustain the capitalist. Alt hough the public seems to think that the lower classes are more likely commit crime, white-collar workers also commit many crimes. White collar criminal activity in Trinidad and Tobago, though hardly ever reported is not un-noticed. It exists at various levels of society both in the public and private sector.However, the merits or demerits of any allegation of wrongdoings made are hardly ever thoroughly investigated, and almost never comes before a criminal court. It is instead ascribed to poor corporate governance rather than deliberate criminal acts. The police or some rather of this small Caribbean island of Trinidad are very corrupt they will commit wrongful doings of all kind and yet still walk freely like it is normal. It is indeed true that they are protected by their own kind.

Friday, January 10, 2020

African Americans and Slavery

African Americans and Slavery in the Revolutionary period The American Revolution was a time of great turmoil for all men and women in the United States. Great debates came and went during this time; slavery and the freedom of black men being the main problems in these debates. Slaves were used for a great number of things during the American revolutionary period. The arrival of slavery to the American colonies began in the 1600s and started out in Virginia.As the years passed more and more African-Americans were brought into the colonies to be used as labor workers. The beginning amount of slaves continued to grow and by the beginning of the revolution there were about 273,000 slaves spread throughout the American states. With the coming of the revolution all African-Americans, slave or free, knew something was coming and each had a different response to these comings. There were differences in the responses of slaves and free men during the American Revolution. There were also cons equences to their choices. Gaining freedom in a land of captivity and wresting equality from a society whose founding documents guarantee it has been the consuming desire and everlasting hope that has kept harrowed bodies and weary souls going. † In the southern states African-American slaves were treated harsher than those in the north. The plantations down south required back –breaking hours of work in the sun that White Americans believed could only be done by those they had bought. There was a reason for them to be there and until they could no longer work they were to do all things imaginable for their owners, no questions asked.Some of these slaves thought it was easier to run away from their owners and that in doing so they would have a chance to fight for their country. Slaves could either flee to the north or they could flee to Spanish owned Florida. In cases where a master was called upon to fight, they would send a slave in their place and if they lived long enough to return home they earned freedom. Many of the slaves decided that if they had a chance to gain their freedom by joining the war effort then they would gladly take their masters place.They also believed that with the beginning to the revolutionary period would bring a new deed to the land and when it was over there would no longer be a need for slaves. The consequences for slaves in the south were innumerable. Like many slaves, they took this time to run from slave masters and plantations. If these southern slaves were caught, depending on the owner, the slave could suffer mild to severe consequences. Depending on the demeanor of the owner a slave could be punished in several different ways. Whipping, branding, slapping, being dunked underwater, and kicking were just some forms of punishment.The most severe punishments were to cut off a body part like an ear in the hopes that the slave would learn and never run again. There were also â€Å"nice† slave owners that chos e not to punish their slaves. There justification for not punishing their slaves was so that they would continue to work and so that the owner could buy more slaves with the money that they continued to pool in from the work. Because of some owners that continuously harassed Washington, he stopped allowing slaves into his army. But General Washington, fearing rebellion, created an order that stated that all blacks were not allowed to fight.Later he partially reversed the order and allowed only free black men to fight with him. Some slaves believed that taking a chance to flee towards the north was a far-fetched idea. They were seeking freedom in the quickest possible way. Lord Dunmore sent out a proclamation that stated in exchange for freedom any black that came to him would fight against the patriots and become a loyalist. Dunmore’s promise of freedom fueled black slaves to escape and even some patriots fled to fight as a loyalist. After the war, true to his word, slaves ga ined their freedom.Some of these newly freed slaves went to Britain but many of them stayed in the Americas. On the other hand free men in the north believed the revolution would bring about change for the better. Their idea of the revolution was that they were being given the chance to gain independence from Great Britain and also for themselves. It was a defining moment in history that they were to be a part of. Fighting with white men gave these free black men a sense of honor and it also gave them a job where they could earn a little money to put towards getting homes and things of that nature.Men from the north gradually began to realize that they could fight with their brethren and bring independence to the land. General Washington passed an order stating that no black man was allowed into his army. This order came about because of general angst from some slave owners. These owners believed that there should not be any blacks fighting for the independence because they were onl y good for being slaves and they would never have say over anything. After some time Washington, fearing not having enough men to fight against the British, partially eversed this order to allow only free black men. Other than this there were not many consequences that are recorded for free black men. These free men not only fought for the independence of the nation but also for their independence and the independence of other black men and women. African-Americans from the north and south chose to join the continental army because they believed that they should help make the place the lived independent from a tyranny that had no say in the matters of a new country. They felt that this tyranny could take their rights and place them under unfair rule once again.Some of the freemen and slaves that had started out in the continental army decided to run to the British army but were not successful in their plights. Nash called the revolution the ‘greatest slave rebellion in America n history’ because it was just that. The revolution opened up new grounds for slaves to rebel against owners because it was the most opportune time for them to do so. â€Å"If any group within America’s diversified people came close to answering John Adams’s plea that ‘we must all be soldiers,’ it was black Americans.No part of revolutionary society responded to the call for arms with anywhere near the enthusiasm of those who were black. Proportionate to their number, African American males— and some females— were more likely to join the fray than white Americans. † According to this excerpt from another one of Nash’s books, African-Americans were much more adept to answering the plea of John Adams. If there were more African-American fighters than white that meant that more black males were subject to put themselves in danger in order to gain freedom.They would rather have one day of freedom, not knowing if they would di e in the next second, hour, or day, than be a slave for the rest of their lives. This is one of the reasons why Nash called the revolution the ‘greatest slave rebellion in American history’. â€Å"Desperate to fill the thinned ranks of its regiments, states offered freedom†¦ to serve during the continuance of the present war with Great Britain. Every black enlistee would be ‘immediately discharged from the service of his master or mistress, and be absolutely free, as if he had never been encumbered with any kind of servitude or slavery. If states were desperate to have more men come into their ranks then there was nothing really stopping slaves from escaping their masters and coming to fight. They all wanted freedom from someone. Slaves wanted freedom from their bonds that were tied to the soil they worked and the Americans wanted freedom from Great Britain. Both groups had their reasons to fight and the only way slaves knew how to become free was to rebel a nd run to an army. This was a time for large rebellions on all fronts not just from the slaves.It was a rebellion against the British from the former colonists and a rebellion against the men and women that were taken from their homes to somehow create new ones. â€Å"It may have been, as Nash says ‘the greatest slave rebellion in American history,’ but for most of the rebels it ended like the others, in death. Slaves who supported the American side fared better, but not much better. Only with great reluctance did Washington allow some to join his army. Other Virginians had another wartime use for them.In 1780 the state legislature offered salves as a bounty for enlistment in the war against British tyranny. The revolution did see enactment of measures for gradual emancipation in the northern states, but the number who benefited was small. † My view on the American Revolution has changed somewhat because of how the African-Americans were treated during and after the period of war. The Americans act as though they had not been fighting alongside each other and because of this withhold distaste for the blacks.The completely disregard the idea that every man is created equal and has certain unalienable rights. They do not extend these ideas that were written down on the Declaration of Independence to the free black Americans. Men that had fought with and under Washington were not looked as the same because the color of their skin and were not given the same rights. Because of how they were treated I see the Revolution more as a war against Britain to save other whites from tyranny rather than to gain independence for all mankind. ——————————————– 1 ]. Gary B. Nash, The Forgotten Fifth: African Americans in the Age of Revolution (Harvard University: 2006), 1. [ 2 ]. Taymor, . â€Å"US History Documents. † Last modified 2005. Accessed J anuary 27, 2013. http://inside. sfuhs. org/dept/history/US_History_reader/Chapter2/Nashfighting. pdf. [ 3 ]. Taymor, . â€Å"US History Documents. † Last modified 2005. Accessed January 27, 2013. http://inside. sfuhs. org/dept/history/US_History_reader/Chapter2/Nashfighting. pdf. [ 4 ]. Edmund S. Morgan, review of The Unknown American Revolution: The